THERAPY: PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
Psychoanalysis is usually
long- term treatment that its positive effect may
last years after the completion of therapy. This
type of treatment works best for people who tend to
benefit from insight as a method that facilitates
change and personal development.
In order to provide greater
intensity and continuity of the analytic process,
patients usually attend frequent sessions a week. In
many cases, they use the couch, which enables
further self-reflection in a more privet atmosphere.
The psychoanalyst knows to
detect the multi-level layers of the patient’s
psyche. This special analyst/ patient dyad is
designed to Work Through repressed inner conflicts,
so that the patient could begin the healing process.
One fundamental assumption of psychoanalysis is the
process of: Repetition Compulsion. That is, the ways
the patient conducts herself in the world, would
surface up and be repeated in therapy.
interpretation and confrontation, repressed
materials are brought up and examined in a conscious
level. This allows the patient greater freedom of
choice, under controlled level.
Also, interpretation of the
patient’s maladaptive Defense- Mechanisms and how it
causes suffering (e.g. hysteria, anxiety), are
analyzed. Through a technique known as
Free-Association, where the patient says whatever
comes to her mind, without being censured, behaviors
and ways of relating are “transferred” onto the
analyst. This is called: Analytic Transference. The
analyst constantly interprets and confronts the
patient with transference relationships. This
process foster introspection on ones' behaviors,
drives, and unfulfilled needs.
In addition to interpretation
of Transference and Repetition Compulsion, other
therapeutic methods include: Dream Interpretation-
which Freud called the: "Royal Road to the
Unconscious"; interpretation of faulty acts
-Freudian Slips and mistakes; Analysis of Symbols -
Freud believed that most of such symbols are sexual
Behavior Therapy is based upon
the principles of Classical Conditioning (developed
by Pavlov) and Operant Conditioning (developed by
Skinner). It aims to treat psychopathology through
techniques designed to reinforce desired behaviors
and eliminate/ lessen undesired behaviors. Behavior
Modification-replaces undesirable behaviors with
more desirable ones through Positive and/ or
Negative Reinforcement. It is used to treat a
variety of mental-disorders, both in adults and
Behavior Modification Techniques Include:
1. Positive Reinforcement:
Encourages certain behaviors through a system of
rewards. It is common for the therapist, together
with the patient, to draw up a Therapeutic Contract,
establishing the conditions of the reward system.
2. Extinction: Eliminates the
reward when unwanted behavior takes place. Time-Out
is a parenting technique based on extinction. Thus,
the misbehaved child is separated from the wanted
group and does not get parental attention.
3. Punishment: Aversive
stimulus given in reaction to a particular, unwanted
behavior. For children, this could be the removal of
their weekly allowance when they disobey their
teacher or parent.
4. Exposure & Response
Prevention: Exposing the person to the feared
situation and preventing her from performing
pathological behavior. For example, preventing an
obsessive hand-washer from washing his hands.
5. Systematic Desensitization:
The person learns to relax while imagining gradually
more and more fearful situations. Works best for
6. Flooding/ Immersion
Therapy: The person learns to tolerate feared
objects or situations through exposure to a high
level of that stimulus. Gradually she/he adjusts to
the stimulus and the fear is lessened. Works best
for treating Phobias.
Modifications Have Been Clinically Proven To Be
Successful In Treating:
Activity Disorder (ADHD)
• Enuresis (bed-wetting)
• Separation Anxiety Disorder
• Generalized Anxiety Disorder
• Sexual Dysfunctions/
Finally, other specific
therapeutic techniques such as: Intensive Behavioral
Intervention, Token Economies, and Social skills
Training, also have empirical support, particularly
for Schizophrenic patients.
*Behavior Analysis is often
used as a therapeutic technique to help children
with Autism and Developmental Delays to acquire new
Therapy-work best for Borderline Personality
Disorder. It is a combination of Behavior
Modification Techniques with Eastern Techniques,
such as Meditation.
Cognitive psychology is
concerned with how people acquire, process and store
information; and Cognitive Therapy is geared toward
tapping on these aspects of personality.
It is an
active- directive, talk psychotherapy proven to be
effective in many clinical studies. It falls under
the category of “Best Practices”. The term Best
Practices is defined as most effective approaches to
therapeutic take. In other words, Cognitive
Psychologists work with techniques that are based on
• Improve memory
• Ways to increase
Decision-Making Accuracy when coping with Depression
& Anxiety. Beck's therapeutically applications
include: Challenging mental distortions by testing
them with the patient, through Socratic Questionings
that are design to analyze distorted reasoning. Beck
named this type of reality testing: Collaborative
It facilitates focusing on reality and
interpreting it, based on environmental facts rather
than on logical errors.
• Marital Therapy Based
on-Bandura's Social Learning Theory. It has been
applied to Family Therapy and Marital Therapy. The
therapist often models healthy communication and
interpersonal behaviors for the couple. For example,
in marital therapy, typical methods include:
Contracts stipulating specific behavioral changes,
Communication skills training & Directive advice
regarding solutions to problems.
Learning Theory has been applied to Child
-Management. Emphasis is put on behavioral
methodology, modeling, as well as on communication
and problem-solving skills.
• Ways to Structure
Educational Curricula to Enhance Learning:
1. Based on Vygotsky's
theory-- attention is given to various aspects of
Adult-Child Dialogue, in order to maximize learning
and language -development. Important to note that
the concept of: “Scaffolding”, became a prevalent
and popular educational assessment method.
provides the test-taker with assistance
(Scaffolding) during the test process, in order to
determine the effects of doing so.
2. Based on Piaget's
theory--Cognitive Psychologists identify specific
adaptive environmental stimuli that would enhance
and maximize the cognitive process of: Assimilating
and Accommodating information into child's existing
Humanistic Psychologist must
convey the following qualities for therapy to be
• Unconditional Positive
The psychologist uses methods
of the clients’ subjective, conscious experiences.
Humanistic psychologists focus more on the “Here and
Now”- on what the client is experiencing in the
present time. Also, specific methods and goals are
established toward Self-Actualization.
Theraputical Applications in Psychotherapy Include:
Organizations & Corporate
Healthy Individuals who want
to reach their full potential
Various types of Neurosis &
Insecurities (e.g. Low Self-Esteem)